Indian Broadband Policy and Regulatory Resources

Surveillance and security

With the proliferation of Internet issues related to cyber security, privacy and data protection, content acquisition etc. are gaining prime importance. Security in the Internet context encompasses issues from network infrastructure to technical and legal challenges to law enforcement. With billions of Internet users around, cyber crime has no national boundary. As a result it is becoming evermore challenging to ensure security in the cyberspace.

Diffusion of broadband is contingent upon demand in the last mile.  Regulators should take active initiative to abate the threats to privacy and data protection. There should be legal and regulatory measures to address these issues. With vast amount of personal data accumulating daily in cyberspace, use, protection, retention and disposal of wide range of personal information is becoming ever more challenging. These issues also include data processing and storage capabilities and online profiling, aggregation methods etc. The regulatory bodies should be careful to ensure privacy of the users, transparency in data collection, awareness about privacy, international policy cooperation.

There are now concerns by Indians that the government maybe accessing their person conversations, SMS, according to this article.

India – Center for Internet and Society study takes a look at the various rules and regulations under Indian law to guard our privacy and confidentiality.

This article describes how the Indian Government Plans to monitor the Internet using ‘Netra’ – While there is no privacy law in India yet, the Government is shortly launching an Internet monitoring system called ‘Netra’ which will be capable to detect suspicious words like ‘attack’, ‘bomb’, ‘blast’ or ‘kill’ in real time on social media, emails, instant messaging services, blogs and others, reports The Economic Times.

This article highlights  The need for Regulation and Accountability on data privacy in India. With its largest consumer base, outsourcing industry and growing economy, the need for data privacy will only increase in India. To meet these requirements, there is an immediate need of a comprehensive data privacy law applicable to all sectors including government bodies, and a governance mechanism to provide accountability on such bodies.


Security – All societies are vulnerable in cyberspace due to the growing interconnection of networks, of people through emails and social media, etc., and increasingly of ‘things’ such as machines, sensors and consumer goods, through the Internet using cables, Ultra Wideband (UWB) and other wireless technologies.

Privacy and Data Protection in an Interconnected Environment – The right to privacy has been a long established principle in many countries, enshrined in laws and often in the Constitution of a country. This link gives some examples.


GDPR Is Great News For Google And Facebook, Really

India Incurred Maximum Internet Shutdowns In South Asia, Last Year: UNESCO

These companies are getting killed by GDPR

EU data privacy laws are likely to create barriers to trade

An American Alternative to Europe’s Privacy Law



NRB Calls for Internet Censorship Hearings

Moscow accuses Facebook of ‘censorship’ after Russian pages tied to Kremlin banned

How feminists in China are using emoji to avoid censorship

Will Trump change America’s relationship with Internet privacy?

Internet shutdown as Sierra Leone votes

Microsoft and DOJ say Supreme Court privacy case is pointless

Exclusive: Facebook CEO stops short of extending European privacy globally

The EU’s General Data Protection Regulation, explained

Sierra Leone denies internet shutdown during election

U.S. government’s email surveillance survives years after Edward Snowden blew the whistle

Cyber is the new black: Australia’s cyber security strategy

With Its Search Engine Blocked in China, Google Has Found a New Inroad: eSports

British PM Wants More Internet Censorship: Delete ‘Extremist Content’ In 2 Hours

Neo-Nazi Daily Stormer site ban provokes debate over online censorship

China Blocks WhatsApp, Broadening Online Censorship

China’s Intensified Internet Censorship Blocks WhatsApp Messaging Feature

Map: Internet Censorship Around the World

Why Spanish Internet Censorship Should Concern Everyone

Mayer Brown Launches Practical Guide on Hot Topics in Cybersecurity and Data Privacy, Including the IoT

A state-sponsored Russian company is providing internet for North Korea and cybersecurity experts are worried

Indonesia’s IT ministry announces purchase of IDR221 billion system to automate internet censorship

China, U.S. Reaffirm Cybersecurity Consensus

Iranian Officials Increase Pressure on Telegram App to Comply With Censorship Policies

China’s Internet censors know how to block Russian interference

WhatsApp, Pooh Bear latest victims of China’s censorship

China Braces for Additional Online Censorship Regulation

WeChat begins censoring users ahead of China’s National Party Congress

Conspiracy to censor Internet

Pakistan blocked more than 200 URLs in 3 years, report reveals

Why educating employees about cyber security isn’t the solution to stopping cyber breaches

U.S. Proposes New Cyber Security Controls to Protect Power Grid

What’s Worse: Censorship By Government Or Google?

There’s a ‘gold rush’ for cyber security solutions to meet coming demands, conference told

China has launched another crackdown on the internet — but it’s different this time

Surveillance of Palestinians and the fight for digital rights

Whois? No, Whowas: Incoming Euro privacy rules torpedo domain registration system

VCs Back Blockchain-based Startup Orchid Labs to Create Internet Free from Surveillance and Censorship

China’s New, Severe Curbs on the Internet Leave Little Left to Censor

After the 19th Party Congress, China Tightens Control on Internet Once Again

Lessons for EU to protect against next cyber attack

Verizon asks FCC to preempt states on internet privacy

EFF to ICANN: Don’t Pick Up the Censor’s Pen

Verizon urges FCC to block states from protecting online privacy

Google Takes Fight of Canadian Court’s ‘Censorship’ Stateside

A prestigious research publisher gives in to China’s censorship

Concerns raised at dialogue on proposed cyber security law

Government to strengthen surveillance, legal framework to check cybercrime

New (and not so new) trends in China’s online censorship

Internet Censorship in China: How the Middle Kingdom Blocks the Web

The Honest Ads Act: Censorship or Security?

NHS prioritizing cyber security to improve patient care and trust

Push for public, private sector cybersecurity cooperation continues

China cyber watchdog rejects censorship critics, says internet must be ‘orderly’

Google set to censor Russian news across internet

Why Is Google Censoring Russian Broadcasts To The US?

Internet censorship: It’s on the rise and Silicon Valley is helping it happen

NCC, ITU To Establish Africa Regional Cybersecurity Centre In Abuja

The Migration of Political Internet Shutdowns

Spike in Chinese censorship over Beijing migrant worker evictions, kindergarten scandal

Why Digital Privacy Should Be Your 2018 New Year’s Resolution

Freedom on the internet restricted worldwide

St Vincent To Host Cybersecurity Forum

‘I Believe Strongly in Freedoms.’ Tim Cook Responds to Criticism Over China’s Internet Censorship

China’s thought police are giving a master class in censorship

Google Pushes Back on Accusations of Aiding Censorship in Cuba

Togo protests against Faure Gnassingbé

Chinese software vendor sentenced for helping circumvent online censorship: Report

China tightens control of chat groups ahead of party congress

Right to privacy: Facebook knows our friends, Uber knows where we go, says SC bench

The Evolution of China’s Great Firewall: 21 Years of Censorship

Shock to the system

Internet shutdowns: Procedural restrictions are needed to prevent them from becoming routine

Online Privacy Worry Erodes Trust in E-Commerce

Venezuela / Protests: UN and IACHR Rapporteurs condemn censorship, arrests and attacks on journalists

A Trick That Hides Censored Websites Inside Cat Videos

Lack of trust in Internet privacy deters online shoppers

In the age of the internet, censorship has acquired a new face

A Look at Government Censorship in the Age of Facebook

Tired of Just Blocking Wikipedia, China’s Government Wants to Create Its Own Online Encyclopedia

Netizen Report: Censorship Spikes in India, Subsides in Cameroon 

Thailand starts new internet censorship campaign as SEA tighten grips on freedom of speech

Three Ways the Russian Government Is Trying to Control the Internet 

Internet Censorship Is Advancing Under Trump – We expect attacks on internet speech in Zimbabwe and Russia. Under Trump, it’s hitting home.

Internet Society tells G20 nations: The web must be fully encrypted – The Internet Society has called for the full encryption of the internet, decrying the fact that securing the digital world has increasingly become associated with restricting access to law enforcement.

The number of Internet shutdowns in India is startling: SFLC 

Cameroon Shuts Down Internet in English-Speaking Regions as Mass Protests Continue

China steps up censorship for Trump inauguration

The real secret of Chinese internet censorship? Distraction

An uneven balance: Analysis of Internet Censorship in Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Swaziland

French internet censorship rose sharply in 2016

Kazakhstan Plans to Ban Anonymous Commenters

Facebook is censoring posts in Thailand that the government has deemed unsuitable

Turkey Censors Internet Blocking Google Drive, GitHub and Dropbox To Contain RedHack Leaks

Multi-stakeholder approach needed to tackle cyberthreats

Ethiopian Government Blocks Internet Access — Again

Malaysia plans to curb internet freedom and control of information with amendments in media law

Internet Censorship: Making the Hidden Visible

U.S. Universities in China Face Internet, Self-Censorship: Report

This African country is taking an unprecedented step in internet censorship

Africa cracks down on social media

 An Internet Censorship Company Tried to Sue the Researchers Who Exposed Them

Surveillance, power and communication

Beijing’s Internet Controls Will Only Tighten Under Xu Lin

Could Facebook Live change the way courts think about privacy law?

“Sky’s the limit” as it starts UK censorship of the Internet

Internet freedom: Why access is becoming a human right

Digital Rights Watch calls for fair use, end of Internet censorship

Reclaim the Internet: From the censors

Facebook censorships nearly tripled in six months because of photo from paris attacks

WhatsApp’s Encryption Was Funded By Same Members of Congress Trying to Weaken It

Ecuador Briefly Censored Google and YouTube, Leaked Document Shows

China scrambles to nullify ‘Panama Papers’ references to own leaders

Global majority backs a ban on ‘dark net,’ poll says – Seven in 10 people say the “dark net” – an anonymous online home to both criminals and activists fearful of government surveillance – should be shut down, according to a global Ipsos poll released on Tuesday.

US, Germany Agree to Continue Cybersecurity Collaboration Efforts

Chinese magazine challenges government over censorship –  One of China’s most respected current affairs magazines has lashed out at Communist party censorship of its work, just weeks after the president, Xi Jinping, demanded absolute loyalty from his country’s media.

FCC’s Tom Wheeler proposes new Internet privacy rule – The FCC wants to create new consumer privacy rules for Internet service providers, requiring them to make it clear what customer personal data is collected and giving consumers more control over how it’s used.

Fixing the Internet’s routing security is urgent and requires collaboration – The Internet is fragile. Many of its protocols were designed at a time when the goal was rapid network expansion based on trust among operators. Today, the Internet’s open nature is what makes it so great for business, education and communication, but the absence of security mechanisms at its core is something that criminals are eager to exploit.

Customer data: If you can’t protect it, don’t collect it, says cyber security expert

Fixing the Internet’s routing security is urgent and requires collaboration – The Internet is fragile. Many of its protocols were designed at a time when the goal was rapid network expansion based on trust among operators. Today, the Internet’s open nature is what makes it so great for business, education and communication, but the absence of security mechanisms at its core is something that criminals are eager to exploit.

The Internet Has a New Standard for Censorship – The introduction of the new 451 HTTP Error Status Code for blocked websites is a big step forward in cataloguing online censorship, especially in a country like India where access to information is routinely restricted.

Online Censorship Rears Its Ugly Head In Southeast Asia – With a growing middle class rising up across its population of more than 600 million people, Southeast Asia is truly a growth market. Added to that, the influx of mobile devices bringing Internet to hundreds of millions of people for the first — and putting it right in their pocket, no less — makes it a particularly exciting place for technology, which has the potential to be hugely transformative. Unfortunately, while tech may be blazing a trail that includes improving communications, increasing access to resources, making payment methods more robust and more, attitudes across the region can be major hurdles that hinder development. Particularly from governments and other authorities.

Where privacy and security intersect, will police and intelligence (finally) work together? – Concerns that two of Canada’s intelligence agencies, the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) and the Canadian Security Intelligence Services (CSIS), broke the rules by sharing intercepted data with Canada’s allies, will further spur public debate about how to strengthen public oversight and accountability mechanisms for Canada’s intelligence gathering agencies.

Government may tap into your IoT gadgets and use your smart devices to spy on you – A Harvard report no sooner debunked the FBI’s “Going Dark” argument than the U.S. intelligence chief admitted the government might use your “smart” internet-connected devices to spy on you.U.S. Director of National Intelligence James Clapper testified (pdf): “Smart” devices incorporated into the electric grid, vehicles—including autonomous vehicles—and household appliances are improving efficiency, energy conservation, and convenience.

Security organisations face merger – Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha wants the Internal Security Operations Command (Isoc) to undergo a restructuring and incorporate the Southern Border Provinces Administrative Centre (SBPAC) into its new structure.

Censorship Around The World Remains High – Truth will always be more powerful than lies. And ultimately, a lie can only be censored and can only exist for so long until it is uncovered, exposed, disbelieved and tossed away. Today, we live in an age of uncovering lies and promoting the truth as has never happened before.

FACT SHEET: Cybersecurity National Action Plan – From the beginning of his Administration, the President has made it clear that cybersecurity is one of the most important challenges we face as a Nation, and for more than seven years he has acted comprehensively to confront that challenge.

The tech industry’s greater responsibility – Today, Internet censorship is becoming a growing concern among dozens of developing countries. In the mid-1990s, China began blocking foreign websites and saw successful results, proving to other authoritarian countries wishing to control their constituents that these types of regulations are well worth the effort. Since then, Iran, North Korea, Cuba, Azerbaijan, Syria and others have followed China’s footsteps and began implementing regulations censoring Internet activity.

Russia’s Internet censorship grew nine-fold in 2015: rights group – Internet censorship in Russia soared last year as the government stepped up efforts to filter content online, a report by a rights group said Tuesday.

Council Of Europe Guidelines For Network Neutrality To Protect Freedom Of Expression, Privacy – The Council of Europe (CoE), the intergovernmental regional group that includes the European Union, called on European governments protect the principle of network neutrality at the national level. The member countries adopted guidelines on protecting and promoting the right to freedom of expression and the right to privacy related to network neutrality.

Regulating Netflix would lead to censorship of the internet, Cogeco CEO Louis Audet says – Although he shares the frustrations about video on demand services like Netflix, Cogeco’s chief executive says he’s opposed to government intervention that could open the door to tighter supervision of the Internet.

Asia Briefing: China calls for even tighter internet controls – Internet freedom was much on the agenda at China’s second World Internet Conference in Wuzhen, but there are clearly different readings on what online freedom means.

Your Apps, Please? China Shows how Surveillance Leads to Intimidation and Software Censorship – Xinjiang, home of the China’s muslim Uighur minority, has long been the world’s laboratory for Internet repression. Faced with widespread local unrest, and online debate, China has done everything it can to enforce its vision of the Net in the region, from imprisoning bloggers and online publishers, to quarantining the entire Xinjiang network from the rest of the Internet for over ten months in 2009.

The illusion of security – It seems as if the political process has been poisoned by the intelligence agencies, who are given more power with less accountability requested every time they fail.  Interview.

FPB must publish comments on ‘censorship’ policy – The Internet Service Providers’ Association (ISPA) in South Africa has called on the Film and Publications Board (FPB) to publish public comments made in response to the Draft Online Regulation Policy.

EFF’s new website keeps an eye on social media censorship – Electronic Frontier Foundation has created a website that tracks censorship across social media outlets.

Dispatches: After Paris, Protect Encryption, Don’t Trash It – The recent attacks by the extremist group Islamic State (also known as ISIS) around the world have deepened our sense of vulnerability and increased demands that government protect our security. But the horrific crimes in Paris and elsewhere should not become the excuse to weaken cyber security globally and attack the availability of strong encryption.

UN privacy chief: UK surveillance bill is ‘worse than scary’ – The UK government’s proposed surveillance legislation is “worse than scary”, the United Nations privacy chief has said.

Silence is golden: China tightens screws on online music – China is tightening control of online music, paying particular attention to content and jacking up already tight censorship of the Internet.

Internet censorship will hurt Malaysia’s GDP, HRW warns – Internet censorship will inevitably impact Malaysia’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and discourage businesses from operating here, the Human Rights Watch (HRW) said in October.

Can China Perfect Internet Censorship? – In 2013, Google chairman Eric Schmidt predicted that widespread encryption offered “a real chance that we can eliminate censorship and the possibility of censorship in a decade.” But CNN’s James Griffiths reports a different forecast: that an ever-stronger Great Firewall might eventually lead to a “perfect” censorship system against which circumvention tools are no longer effective

Researchers Accuse Canadian Internet Company of Helping Yemen Censor the Web – The Yemeni civil war, which has killed more than 5,400 people in seven months, has been fought not only on the streets, but online as well. Houthi rebels, who have forced the government into exile, have been using technology provided by Canadian internet-filtering company Netsweeper to indiscriminately censor large swaths of the internet critical of the rebel group, according to new research.

United Nations Partners with Tech Firms for Increased Internet Security in Developing Countries – Cryptosoft, a UK-based information security company, has announced a partnership with the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), a United Nations agency to establish increased global Internet security standards focused on the Internet of Things (IoT). The alliance with the ITU, will focus on education and training in countries with less resources.

Chinese Web censorship may have claimed another victim: Apple News – This weekend, China’s strict content and Internet laws may have claimed another service before it was even officially supported. The New York Times reports that Apple has disabled its new Apple News app in the region.

Thailand’s gamers fight to save the open internet – Thailand’s military junta has already banned Facebook (a few times), Bitcoin and the game Tropico, but that’s not enough for the censor-happy dictatorship. The nation is now kicking around the idea of a single gateway — effectively one internet connection between Thailand and the rest of the world.

Censorship vs. Activism on Social Media – The internet can be a real minefield when it comes to social issues. Many users are willing to get very worked up in defense of the issues they care about and engage in online activism. However, discussion about touchy social issues can be difficult on social sites for other reasons including the policies laid out in terms of service and potential censorship.

Internet censorship: why governments are against what people want 

China to set up government censorship offices inside Internet companies 

Every second Russian supports censorship online – survey – Russians are ready to entrust the regulation of the Internet to the government (42%) or intelligence services (41%); overall, almost every second Russian (49%) believes that information available online should be censored, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center told Interfax.

Pakistan’s Invasive Mass Surveillance System: A Violation of International Standards – A report published by London-based advocacy group Privacy International claims that the practical surveillance capacity of the Pakistani government and Inter-Services Intelligence Agency (ISI) has exceeded local and international regulation laws for surveillance.

Kuwait: Cybercrime Law a Blow to Free Speech

Malaysia Admits to Censoring the Internet – The UK-based news website the Sarawak Report was blocked in Malaysia on July 19, 2015 upon orders from the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC). The site remains inaccessible from within the country unless users access the site on their mobile phones or via a VPN.

In first case of its kind, UK high court rules surveillance law unconstitutional – Controversial surveillance legislation hustled through parliament has been ruled unlawful by the UK High Court, which argued that the vague terms and descriptions of powers in the Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Act 2014 (DRIPA) renders the act incompatible with human rights under European law.

‘Right to be forgotten’ — Europe’s censorship overreach

FACT SHEET: Administration Cybersecurity Efforts in the US in 2015

South African Internet censorship fight – Online content in South Africa could be regulated by the Press Council (PCSA) rather than the Film and Publications Board (FPB)

Proposed Internet Security Law in China Raises Concerns–  As part of a wave of legislation aimed at further regulating civil society, speech, and assembly, the Chinese government has issued a draft law on Internet security, which is open for public review until August 2015. Like the draft Foreign NGO Management Law and the recently passed National Security Law, this proposal has been criticized for being excessively vague and for its potential to impose harsh restrictions on Internet expression.

David Cameron’s proposed encryption ban would ‘destroy the internet’ – A highly respected cryptographer and security expert is warning that David Cameron’s proposed ban on strong encryption threatens to “destroy the internet.”

New national security law in China and internet freedom in HK

Securing the Internet Commons– US government’s national security officials oppose full encryption by American technology companies, arguing that the country will be less safe if the proper authorities have no “backdoor” – a piece of code that lets them in. Software engineers call backdoors “vulnerabilities,” deliberate efforts to weaken security. They regard a request for backdoors the same way an automobile manufacturer would view a request for a defective engine.

I Got Doxxed So You Don’t Have To – Fisher checklist to be secure online.

Website Owners Deserve the Right to Stay Anonymous – Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, or ICANN, is considering a proposal that would roll back anonymity for commercial website owners by making them ineligible for proxy registration services. If approved, this means that any small business owner with a website—possibly even bloggers simply running ads or accepting donations—would be prohibited from protecting their own contact information.

Cyber-security guide for developing countries – The guide is intended to give developing countries a tool allowing them to better understand some of the issues relating to IT security, and provide them with examples of solutions that other countries have put in place in order to deal with these problems. It also refers to other publications giving further specific information on cybersecurity.

Security Internet Safety – Two sides of the same coin – When we open our windows for sunshine, some dust can also come in and so can someone peep in too. So, we use screens & curtains, etc. Same is the case with the cyber world too

Everyone is entitled to their privacy

Majority see no secure privacy regime by 2025 – The vast majority of experts agree that people who operate online are living in an unprecedented condition of ubiquitous surveillance

Internet Freedom in danger since 2014– This study revealed that web freedom has been declining for the fourth back to back year and specifies the administrative actions for restricting applications and tech advancements by restrictions on content, website filters and monitoring users online activities. 

Beijing behind internet security violation Group- China’s cyberspace administration is ‘complicit’ in attacks on major Internet companies including Google, according to, an anti-censorship group.

Netizen Report: Are France’s Human Rights Commitments Crumbling Post-Charlie?– Global Voices Advocacy’s Netizen Report offers an international snapshot of challenges, victories, and emerging trends in Internet rights around the world.

China’s ‘Great Cannon’ DDoS tool enforces Internet censorship: China is deploying a tool that can be used to launch huge distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks to enforce censorship. Researchers have dubbed it “the Great Cannon.”

Annual list of the world’s top 10 most censored countries – The New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists issued its annual list of the world’s top 10 most censored countries. 

How the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) would impact internet freedom – Under this TPP proposal, Internet Service Providers could be required to “police” user activity, take down internet content, and cut people off from internet access for common user-generated content.

Analysts Voice Concern Over Draft National Security Law  – China has included a “sovereignty” clause in a new wave of policies designed to tighten IT management.

France approves domestic spying without “almost no judicial oversight” – The new measures in France include cellphone and email metadata harvesting and forcing Internet companies to comply with requests to allow the government to sift through virtually all of their subscribers.

How Safe Are Internet Search Engines from Russian Censorship? – Russia is demanding that Internet search engines be held accountable for the content they index.According to Duma deputy Elena Mizulina, Russia’s child-protection laws should apply to Google, Yandex, and their rivals. Mizulina noted that the Russian state (along with law enforcement officials) has the authority to shut down websites containing information deemed harmful to children.

46% of 1,000 Leading Websites Fail Online Trust Alliance Data Security and Privacy Assessment – OTAs 7th annual audit has been expanded and includes websites of the top 50 leading Internet of Things device makers, focused on wearable technologies and connected home products. 76 percent of these sites failed the assessment, while only 20 percent scored highly enough to qualify for OTAs Online Trust Honor Roll. News and media sites received the lowest scores with an 80 percent fail rate.

Country Studies

German and U.S. Telecommunications Privacy Law –  Legal Regulation of Domestic Law Enforcement Surveillance

FCC on Privacy and Security – As the Internet becomes a more frequent place for us to conduct business and interact with others, the dangers posed by computer hackers, spyware, viruses and other malicious software become more serious. If unchecked, these dangers can threaten personal information and privacy, as well as the security of computer hardware and software. It is important that all consumers take basic steps to secure their computers and network connections.

How the NSA Almost Killed the Internet – Google, Facebook, Microsoft, and the other tech titans have had to fight for their lives against their own government. An exclusive look inside their year from hell—and why the Internet will never be the same.