Administration of the universal service program/ fund in a transparent, non-discriminatory and competitively neutral manner is one of the challenges of the broadband diffusion. Managing USO means that it is not more burdensome than necessary for the kind of universal service defined by the policy makers. The issues covered here encompass concepts of universal access and service, mechanisms, ways to fund US and US in various regions of the world.
The regulatory authorities around the world have used various schemes to manage and realize universal access and service. Many believe that competition with subsidies for universal access and service funds are highly effective. There are also ideas in practice of non-government and community based initiatives to understand the need and to formulate policy, mandating open access policy to key infrastructure such as backbone and international gateways, using co-opratives and rural/regional license regime.